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What Drafters Do About this section

Drafters prepare technical drawings and plans.

Drafters use software to convert the designs of architects and engineers into technical drawings. Most workers specialize in architectural, civil, electrical, or mechanical drafting and use technical drawings to help design everything from microchips to skyscrapers.


Drafters typically do the following:

  • Design plans using computer-aided design (CAD) software
  • Work from rough sketches and specifications created by engineers and architects
  • Design products with engineering and manufacturing techniques
  • Add details to architectural plans from their knowledge of building techniques
  • Specify dimensions, materials, and procedures for new products
  • Work under the supervision of engineers or architects

Some drafters are referred to as CAD operators. Using CAD systems, drafters create and store technical drawings digitally. These drawings contain information on how to build a structure or machine, the dimensions of the project, and what materials are needed to complete the project.

Drafters work with CAD to create schematics that can be viewed, printed, or programmed directly into building information modeling (BIM) systems. These systems allow drafters, architects, construction managers, and engineers to create and collaborate on digital models of physical buildings and machines. Through three-dimensional rendering, BIM software allows designers and engineers to see how different elements in their projects work together.

The following are examples of types of drafters:

Architectural drafters draw structural features and details for buildings and other construction projects. These workers may specialize in a type of building, such as residential or commercial. They may also specialize by the materials used, such as steel, wood, or reinforced concrete.

Civil drafters prepare topographical maps used in construction and civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and dams.

Electrical drafters prepare wiring diagrams that construction workers use to install and repair electrical equipment and wiring in power plants, electrical distribution systems, and residential and commercial buildings.

Electronics drafters produce wiring diagrams, assembly diagrams for circuit boards, and layout drawings used in manufacturing and in installing and repairing electronic devices and components.

Mechanical drafters prepare layouts that show the details for a variety of machinery and mechanical tools and devices, such as medical equipment. These layouts indicate dimensions, fastening methods, and other requirements for assembly. Mechanical drafters sometimes create production molds.

Work Environment About this section

Drafters spend much of their time working on computers using specialized software in an office.

Drafters held about 192,200 jobs in 2021. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up drafters was distributed as follows:

Architectural and civil drafters 105,400
Mechanical drafters 49,400
Electrical and electronics drafters 21,500
Drafters, all other 15,900

The largest employers of drafters were as follows:

Architectural, engineering, and related services 49%
Manufacturing 23
Construction 11
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 4

Although drafters spend much of their time working on computers in an office, some may visit jobsites to collaborate with architects and engineers.

Work Schedules

Most drafters work full time. Some work more than 40 hours a week.

How to Become a Drafter About this section

Drafters generally need to complete postsecondary education in drafting.

Drafters typically complete education after high school, often through a program at a community college or technical school. Some programs lead to an associate of applied science in drafting or a related degree. Others result in a certificate or diploma.


Drafters typically need an associate of applied science in drafting or a related degree from a community college or technical school. Some drafters prepare for the occupation by earning a certificate or diploma.

Programs in drafting may include instruction in design fundamentals, sketching, and computer-aided design (CAD) software. It generally takes about 2 years of full-time education to earn an associate’s degree. Certificate and diploma programs vary in length but usually may be completed in less time.

Students frequently specialize in a particular type of drafting, such as mechanical or architectural drafting.  

High school students may begin preparing by taking classes in mathematics, science, computer technology, design, computer graphics, and, where available, drafting.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) offers certification for drafters. Although not mandatory, certification demonstrates competence and knowledge of nationally recognized practices. Certifications are offered for several specialties, including architectural, civil, and mechanical drafting.

Important Qualities

Creativity. Drafters must be able to turn plans and ideas into technical drawings of buildings, tools, and systems.

Detail oriented. Drafters must take care that the plans they convert are technically accurate according to the outlined specifications.

Interpersonal skills. Drafters work closely with architects, engineers, and other designers to make sure that final plans are accurate. This requires the ability to communicate effectively and work well with others.

Math skills. Drafters work on technical drawings. They may be required to calculate angles, weights, costs, and other values.

Technical skills. Drafters in all specialties must be able to use computer software, such as CAD, and work with database tools, such as building information modeling (BIM).

Time-management skills. Drafters often work under deadline. As a result, they must work efficiently to produce the required output according to set schedules.

Pay About this section


Median annual wages, May 2021

Drafters, engineering technicians, and mapping technicians




Total, all occupations



The median annual wage for drafters was $60,290 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,390, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $92,970.

Median annual wages for drafters in May 2021 were as follows:

Electrical and electronics drafters $61,510
Architectural and civil drafters 60,340
Mechanical drafters 60,200
Drafters, all other 54,240

In May 2021, the median annual wages for drafters in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Architectural, engineering, and related services $60,460
Construction 60,210
Manufacturing 58,420
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 49,170

Most drafters work full time. Some work more than 40 hours a week.

Job Outlook About this section


Percent change in employment, projected 2021-31

Total, all occupations


Drafters, engineering technicians, and mapping technicians





Overall employment of drafters is projected to decline 3 percent from 2021 to 2031.

Despite declining employment, about 18,900 openings for drafters are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.


Expected employment decreases will be driven by the use of computer-aided design (CAD) and building information modeling (BIM) technologies. These technologies increase drafter productivity and allow engineers and architects to perform many tasks that used to be done by drafters.

Employment projections data for drafters, 2021-31
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program


17-3010 192,200 185,400 -3 -6,700 Get data

Architectural and civil drafters

17-3011 105,400 104,100 -1 -1,300 Get data

Electrical and electronics drafters

17-3012 21,500 21,500 0 0 Get data

Mechanical drafters

17-3013 49,400 45,200 -9 -4,200 Get data

Drafters, all other

17-3019 15,900 14,700 -8 -1,200 Get data

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information on schools offering programs in drafting and related fields, visit

Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges  

For more information on certification, visit

American Design Drafting Association

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