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Biological Technician

Job Outlook: 7% (Faster than average)

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What Biological Technicians Do About this section

Biological technicians
Biological technicians prepare samples for further testing.

Biological technicians help biological and medical scientists conduct laboratory tests and experiments.


Biological technicians typically do the following:

  • Set up, maintain, and clean laboratory instruments and equipment, such as microscopes, scales, pipets, and test tubes
  • Gather and prepare biological samples, such as blood, food, and bacteria cultures, for laboratory analysis
  • Conduct biological tests and experiments
  • Document their work, including procedures, observations, and results
  • Analyze experimental data and interpret results
  • Write reports that summarize their findings

Biological technicians, sometimes called laboratory assistants, typically are responsible for doing scientific tests, experiments, and analyses under the supervision of biologists (such as microbiologists) or medical scientists who direct and evaluate their work. Biological technicians use traditional laboratory instruments, advanced robotics, and automated equipment to conduct experiments. They use specialized computer software to collect, analyze, and model experimental data. Some biological technicians, such as those who assist the work of zoologists and wildlife biologists, may collect samples in the field, so they may need the ability to hike rugged terrain or otherwise travel through wilderness areas.

Biological technicians work in many research areas. They may assist medical researchers by administering new medicines and treatments to laboratory animals. They may separate proteins from other cell material, and analyze data from an experiment.

Biological technicians working in a microbiological context typically study living microbes and perform techniques specific to microbiology, such as staining specimens to aid identification.

Biological technicians also may work in private industry and assist in the study of a wide range of topics concerning industrial production. They may test samples in environmental impact studies, or monitor production processes to help ensure that products are not contaminated.

Work Environment About this section

Biological technicians
Most biological technicians work in laboratories.

Biological technicians held about 84,300 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of biological technicians were as follows:

Scientific research and development services 32%
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private 25
Federal government, excluding postal service 11
Hospitals; state, local, and private 8
Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing 7

Biological technicians typically work in laboratories and offices, where they conduct experiments and analyze the results under the supervision of biological scientists and medical scientists. Some biological technicians who do fieldwork may be exposed to weather events and wildlife, such as mosquitoes.

Biological technicians must follow strict procedures to avoid contaminating the experiment, themselves, or the environment. Some experiments may involve dangerous organisms or toxic substances.

Biological technicians work together on teams under the direction of biologists or other scientists.

Work Schedules

Most biological technicians work full time and keep regular hours.

How to Become a Biological Technician About this section

Biological technicians
Most biological technicians gain laboratory experience while in school.

To enter the occupation, biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a related field. Although less common, some positions are available to candidates who have less than a bachelor’s degree.


Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a related field, such as physical science or natural resources. Positions are sometimes open to candidates who have less education than a bachelor's degree but have laboratory experience.

Biology programs typically include subfields such as ecology, microbiology, and physiology. In addition to studying biological sciences, students may need to take courses in math and physics, as well as in other sciences. Students need laboratory experience, so science coursework should include a lab component.

Other Experience

Prospective biological technicians should have laboratory experience. In addition to coursework, students may gain laboratory experience during summer internships with prospective employers, such as pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturers, or in university laboratories.


Biological technicians may advance to scientist positions, such as microbiologist or biochemist and biophysicist, after a few years of experience working as a technician or after earning a master’s degree or Ph.D. Gaining more experience and higher levels of education often allows biological technicians to move into positions such as natural sciences managers or postsecondary teachers.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Biological technicians need to conduct scientific experiments and analyses with accuracy and precision.

Communication skills. Biological technicians must understand and follow the instructions of their managing scientists. They also need to communicate their processes and findings clearly in written reports.

Critical-thinking skills. Biological technicians draw conclusions from experimental results through sound reasoning and judgment.

Observational skills. Biological technicians must constantly monitor their experiments. They need to keep a complete, accurate record of their work, including the conditions under which the experiment was carried out, the procedures they followed, and the results they obtained.

Technical skills. Biological technicians need to set up and operate sophisticated equipment and instruments. They also may need to adjust equipment to ensure that experiments are conducted properly.

Pay About this section

Biological Technicians

Median annual wages, May 2021

Life, physical, and social science technicians


Biological technicians


Total, all occupations



The median annual wage for biological technicians was $48,140 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,170, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $78,090.

In May 2021, the median annual wages for biological technicians in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing $59,770
Scientific research and development services 49,850
Hospitals; state, local, and private 49,580
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private 48,140
Federal government, excluding postal service 41,910

Most biological technicians work full time and keep regular hours.

Job Outlook About this section

Biological Technicians

Percent change in employment, projected 2021-31

Biological technicians


Life, physical, and social science technicians


Total, all occupations



Employment of biological technicians is projected to grow 9 percent from 2021 to 2031, faster than the average for all occupations.

About 12,200 openings for biological technicians are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.


Demand for biological and medical research is expected to increase the need for biological technicians. Synthetic biology, a relatively new area of biotechnology, will employ biological technicians to redesign biological systems or living organisms for medical, manufacturing, and agriculture applications. Continued growth in biotechnology research and development projects, such as using cells to deliver drugs within the human body, is expected to support demand for biological technicians.

Employment projections data for biological technicians, 2021-31
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Biological technicians

19-4021 84,300 92,000 9 7,700 Get data

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information about career opportunities in the biological sciences, visit

American Institute of Biological Sciences

American Society for Cell Biology

American Society for Microbiology


Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

To find job openings for biological technicians in the federal government, visit



For a career video on biological technicians, visit

Biological technicians


Biological Technicians


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