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Industrial Truck or Tractor Operator

Job Outlook: 4% (As fast as average)

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What Material Moving Machine Operators Do About this section

Material moving machine operators
Crane and tower operators are commonly employed in construction and water transportation.

Material moving machine operators use machinery to transport various objects. Some operators move construction materials around building sites or excavate earth from a mine. Others move goods around a warehouse or onto container ships.

Duties

Material moving machine operators typically do the following:

  • Set up and inspect material moving equipment
  • Control equipment with levers, wheels, or foot pedals
  • Move material according to a plan or schedule
  • Signal and direct workers to load, unload, and position materials
  • Keep a record of the material they move and where they move it to
  • Make minor repairs to their equipment

In warehouses, most material moving machine operators use forklifts and conveyor belts. Wireless sensors and tags are increasingly being used to keep track of merchandise, allowing operators to locate them faster. Some operators also check goods for damage. These operators usually work closely with hand laborers and material movers.

Many operators work for underground and surface mining companies. They help to dig or expose the mine, remove the earth and rock, and extract coal, ore, and other mined materials.

In construction, material moving machine operators remove earth to clear space for buildings. Some work on a building site for the entire length of the construction project. For example, certain material moving machine operators help to construct highrise buildings by transporting materials to workers who are far above ground level.

All material moving machine operators are responsible for the safe operation of their equipment or vehicle.

The following are examples of types of material moving machine operators:

Conveyor operators and tenders control conveyor systems that move materials on an automatic belt. They move materials to and from places such as storage areas, vehicles, and building sites. They monitor sensors on the conveyor to regulate the speed with which the conveyor belt moves. Operators also may check the shipping order and determine the route that materials take along a conveyor.

Crane and tower operators use tower and cable equipment to lift and move materials, machinery, or other heavy objects. From a control station, operators can extend and retract horizontal booms, rotate the superstructure, and lower and raise hooks attached to cables at the end of their crane or tower. Operators usually are guided by workers on the ground who use hand signals or who transmit voice signals through a radio. Most crane and tower operators work at construction sites or major ports, where they load and unload cargo. Some operators work in iron and steel mills.

Dredge operators excavate waterways. They operate equipment on the water to remove sand, gravel, or rock from harbors or lakes. Removing these materials helps to prevent erosion and maintain navigable waterways, and allows larger ships to use ports. Dredging also is used to help restore wetlands and maintain beaches.

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators use machines equipped with scoops or shovels. They dig sand, earth, or other materials and load them onto conveyors or into trucks for transport elsewhere. They may also move material within a confined area, such as a construction site. Operators typically receive instructions from workers on the ground through hand signals or through voice signals transmitted by radio. Most of these operators work in construction or mining industries.

Hoist and winch operators, also called derrick operators, control the movement of platforms, cables, and cages that transport workers or materials in industrial operations, such as constructing a highrise building. Many of these operators raise platforms far above the ground. Operators regulate the speed of the equipment on the basis of the needs of the workers. Many work in manufacturing, mining, and quarrying industries.

Industrial truck and tractor operators drive trucks and tractors that move materials around warehouses, storage yards, or worksites. These trucks, often called forklifts, have a lifting mechanism and forks, which make them useful for moving heavy and large objects. Some industrial truck and tractor operators drive tractors that pull trailers loaded with material around factories or storage areas.

Underground mining loading machine operators load coal, ore, and other rocks onto shuttles, mine cars, or conveyors for transport from a mine to the surface. They may use power shovels, hoisting engines equipped with scrapers or scoops, and automatic gathering arms that move materials onto a conveyor. Operators also drive their machines farther into the mine in order to gather more material.

Work Environment About this section

Material moving machine operators
Industrial truck and tractor operators use forklifts in warehousing and storage facilities.

Material moving machine operators held about 761,400 jobs in 2019. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up material moving machine operators was distributed as follows:

Industrial truck and tractor operators 634,700
Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining 46,100
Crane and tower operators 45,700
Conveyor operators and tenders 23,900
Hoist and winch operators 4,900
Loading and moving machine operators, underground mining 4,500
Dredge operators 1,600

The largest employers of material moving machine operators were as follows:

Warehousing and storage 25%
Wholesale trade 12
Temporary help services 8
Construction 7
Food manufacturing 6

Material moving machine operators work indoors and outdoors in a variety of industries.

Injuries and Illnesses

Hoist and winch operators have one of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations.

Many workers wear personal protective equipment, including gloves, hardhats, harnesses, and respirators to guard against injury.

Work Schedules

Most material moving machine operators work full time, and overtime for them is common. Because materials are shipped around the clock, some operators—especially those in warehousing—work overnight shifts.

How to Become a Material Moving Machine Operator About this section

Material moving machine operators
Material moving machine operators are trained on the job.

Education and training requirements vary by occupation. Crane operators and excavating machine operators usually have several years of experience in related occupations, such as construction equipment operators or hoist or winch operators.

Education

Although no formal educational credential is usually required, some companies prefer to hire material moving machine operators who have a high school diploma. For crane and tower operators, excavating machine operators, and dredge operators, however, a high school diploma or equivalent typically is required.

Training

Although most material moving machine operators are trained on the job in less than a month, the amount of time spent in training will vary with the type of machine. Some machines, such as cranes and towers, are more complex than others, such as industrial trucks and forklifts. Learning to operate a forklift or an industrial truck in warehouses, for example, may take only a few days; training to operate a crane for port operations may take several months. Most workers are trained by a supervisor or another experienced employee.

During their training, material moving machine operators learn a number of safety rules, many of which are standardized through the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Employers must certify that each operator has received the proper training. Operators who work with hazardous materials receive further specialized training.

The International Union of Operating Engineers offers apprenticeship programs for heavy-equipment operators, such as excavating machine operators or crane operators. Apprenticeships combine paid on-the-job training with technical instruction.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

A number of states and several cities require crane operators to be licensed. To get a license, operators typically must complete a skills test in which they show that they can control a crane. They also must pass a written exam that tests their knowledge of safety rules and procedures. Some crane operators and industrial truck and tractor operators may obtain certification, which includes passing a written exam.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Crane operators and excavating machine operators usually have several years of experience working as construction equipment operators, hoist and winch operators, or riggers and signalers.

Important Qualities

Alertness. Material moving machine operators must be aware of their surroundings while operating machinery.

Communication skills. Material moving machine operators signal and direct workers to load and unload material. They also receive direction from workers on the ground when moving material.

Coordination. Material moving machine operators should have steady hands and feet to guide and control heavy machinery precisely. They use hand controls to maneuver their machines through tight spaces, around large objects, and on uneven surfaces.

Mechanical skills. Material moving machine operators make minor adjustments to their machines and perform basic maintenance on them.

Visual ability. Material moving machine operators must be able to see clearly where they are driving or what they are moving. They must also watch for nearby workers, who may unknowingly be in their path.

Pay About this section

Material Moving Machine Operators

Median annual wages, May 2019

Total, all occupations

$39,810

Material moving machine operators

$36,770

Material moving workers

$29,060

 

The median annual wage for material moving machine operators was $36,770 in May 2019. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,040, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $58,240.

Median annual wages for material moving machine operators in May 2019 were as follows:

Hoist and winch operators $59,720
Crane and tower operators 56,690
Loading and moving machine operators, underground mining 54,210
Dredge operators 47,040
Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining 44,800
Industrial truck and tractor operators 36,200
Conveyor operators and tenders 34,660

In May 2019, the median annual wages for material moving machine operators in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Construction $50,120
Warehousing and storage 36,510
Food manufacturing 35,820
Wholesale trade 35,420
Temporary help services 30,230

Most material moving machine operators work full time, and overtime for them is common. Because materials are shipped around the clock, some operators—especially those in warehousing—work overnight shifts.

Job Outlook About this section

Material Moving Machine Operators

Percent change in employment, projected 2019-29

Total, all occupations

4%

Material moving machine operators

2%

Material moving workers

2%

 

Overall employment of material moving machine operators is projected to grow 2 percent from 2019 to 2029, slower than the average for all occupations. Employment growth will vary by occupation.

Employment of industrial truck and tractor operators is concentrated in warehouses. The demand for warehousing will continue to grow as more consumers choose to purchase products online. However, employment growth for these workers may be tempered as more warehouses begin using automated machinery to improve their operations. This equipment increases the efficiency of operators, allowing warehouses to employ fewer of them.

Projected employment growth of conveyor operators and tenders will be limited as equipment such as high-speed conveyors and sorting systems, autonomous vehicles, and robotic pickers increase these workers’ productivity.

In addition, employment of underground mining loading and moving machine operators is projected to decline. Most of the decline is in the coal mining industry, as increased use of autonomous vehicles reduces demand for these operators.

Job Prospects

Job prospects are expected to be favorable. Many job openings should be created by the need to replace workers who leave these occupations.

Employment projections data for material moving machine operators, 2019-29
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2019 Projected Employment, 2029 Change, 2019-29 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Material moving machine operators

761,400 780,400 2 19,000

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

47-5022 46,100 47,400 3 1,300 Get data

Loading and moving machine operators, underground mining

47-5044 4,500 3,900 -13 -600 Get data

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011 23,900 24,000 0 100 Get data

Crane and tower operators

53-7021 45,700 46,500 2 800 Get data

Dredge operators

53-7031 1,600 1,700 4 100 Get data

Hoist and winch operators

53-7041 4,900 4,600 -5 -200 Get data

Industrial truck and tractor operators

53-7051 634,700 652,300 3 17,500 Get data

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